Genetic engineering is a recent phenomenon, but the rapid evolution of science and technology has inevitably lead to new scenarios in policymaking and trade relations, setting new research and development priorities. With its potential benefits, these scientific advances are part of a growing legal and political debate mainly focusing on how to guarantee minimum levels of safety to human health and environmental preservation. Scientific research and its regulatory framework are, however, embedded in determined socio-economic, environmental and cultural settings. Before scientific uncertainty, policy-making processes need to change to provide people in developing countries with more reliable information about GMOs, so that they are part in the process of assessing the implications of this new technology to spheres that affect them directly as food safety, environmental conservation and sustainable use, agricultural management and quality of life. The main objective of this book is to clarify the scene from a legal and policy perspective in order to contribute to the debate and generate policies on biosafety. In its English version – supported by GTZ-, this book will contribute to inform a wide range of stakeholders on some of the ideas, policies and legislation which are being discussed and promoted within Peru and Latin America in general. Particularly, it allows to learn about the difficulties and opportunities of biosafety policy-making and their relevance for a megadiverse country, centre of origin and diversity like Peru, which demand a holistic and integrated understanding.